Lower Limb Arterial & Venous Study

What are vascular studies?

Vascular studies are a noninvasive (the skin is not pierced) procedure used to assess the blood flow in arteries and veins. A transducer (like a microphone) sends out ultrasonic sound waves at a frequency too high to be heard. When the transducer is placed on the skin at certain locations and angles,

Carotid Artery Doppler Scan

What is A Carotid Artery Duplex Scan

A carotid artery duplex scan is a type of vascular ultrasound study done to assess the blood flow of the arteries that supply blood from the heart through the neck to the brain. There are four carotid arteries – the right and left internal carotid arteries and the right and left external carotid arteries.

Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV), Nerve Conduction Studies.

What is nerve conduction velocity?

Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) test is a measurement of the speed of conduction of an electrical impulse through a nerve. NCV can determine nerve damage and destruction.

During the test, the nerve is stimulated, usually with surface electrode patches attached to the skin. Two electrodes are placed on the skin over the nerve.

Evoked Potential Studies


(Evoked Brain Potentials, Evoked Responses, Visual Evoked Response [VER], Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response [ABER], Somatosensory Evoked Response [SER])

Procedure Overview

Evoked potentials studies measure electrical activity in the brain in response to stimulation of sight, sound, or touch. Stimuli delivered to the brain through each of these senses evoke minute electrical signals.


Electromyography, or EMG, is used to diagnose nerve and muscle dysfunction and spinal cord disease. It records the electrical activity from the brain and/or spinal cord to a peripheral nerve root (found in the arms and legs) that controls muscles during contraction and at rest.

During an EMG, very fine wire electrodes are inserted into a muscle to assess changes in electrical voltage that occur during movement and when the muscle is at rest.


Electroencephalography, or EEG, monitors brain activity through the skull. EEG is used to help diagnose certain seizure disorders, brain tumors, brain damage from head injuries, inflammation of the brain and/or spinal cord, alcoholism, certain psychiatric disorders, and metabolic and degenerative disorders that affect the brain. EEGs are also used to evaluate sleep disorders, monitor brain activity when a patient has been fully anesthetized or loses consciousness,

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurological Disorders

An accurate diagnosis is the first step toward effective treatment. Diagnosis involves getting a detailed health history of the patient, and neurological tests for vision, strength, coordination, reflexes, and sensation. Sometimes, further tests are needed to reach a diagnosis.
There is a significant amount of training required to become a board certified neurologist. They must complete four years of undergraduate college education,

What is the role of a neurologist?

Neurologists are principal care providers or consultants to other doctors. When a person has a neurological disorder that requires frequent care, a neurologist is often the principal care provider. People with disorders, such as Parkinson disease, Alzheimer’s disease, seizure disorders or multiple sclerosis may use a neurologist as their principal care doctor.
In a consulting role,

What does a neurologist treat?

Common neurological disorders include:

  • Stroke
  • Pain
  • Headache
  • Epilepsy
  • Tremor
  • Sleep disorders
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Parkinson disease
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Brain and spinal cord injuries
  • Brain tumors
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also called Lou Gehrig’s Disease

What is a neurologist?

A neurologist is a medical doctor with specialized training in diagnosing, treating, and managing disorders of the brain and nervous system. Neurologists do not perform surgery. A neurologist’s training includes an undergraduate degree, four years of medical school, a one-year internship, and three years of specialized training. Many neurologists also have additional training in one area of neurology such as stroke,